# The Golden Ratio in Nature

So pleasing to the eye

I was never interested in mathematics at school,  because of the way it was taught; it was seen as a subject for boys in the 50s. Perhaps today, things have changed a bit.  In any case,  from early on, I was on the creative spectrum, rather than the logical/rational one.

Today, however, I’m fascinated by the idea of The Golden Ratio, and its links with mathematics, nature and art. In fact, it also has links with science, architecture, music, and many other areas besides.  The golden ratio essentially states that a + b is to a, as a is to b.

Around 1200, mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci discovered the unique properties of the Fibonacci Sequence. This sequence ties directly into the Golden ratio because if you take any two successive Fibonacci numbers, their ratio is very close to the Golden ratio. As the numbers get higher, the ratio becomes even closer to 1.618. For example, the ratio of 3 to 5 is 1.666. But the ratio of 13 to 21 is 1.625. Getting even higher, the ratio of 144 to 233 is 1.618. These numbers are all successive numbers in the Fibonacci sequence. (Wikipedia)

Here is a visual representation of a Fibonacci spiral which approximates the golden spiral, using Fibonacci sequence square sizes up to 34

Notice how the lengths get smaller in a spiral pattern. This spiral pattern is used throughout nature.

Many shells, including snail shells and nautilus shells, are perfect examples of the Golden spiral. Similarly, hurricanes often portray the golden spiral.

Also, the seeds of a sunflower, which start in the centre  and  radiate outwards to fill the space follow this pattern. If you look closely at the centre  of a sunflower,  you’ll see the golden spiral pattern repeated endlessly, a perfect example of the golden proportion in nature. There are no gaps from beginning to end.

Some spiders form their webs in spirals that suggest the repetitive pattern of the golden spiral.  And the beautiful patterns on the wings of moths and butterflies approximate the golden mean.

Beautiful spider web with water drops close-up

Beautiful design

Close-up of a snail shell

Spiral Sea Shell

Another example of the Fibonacci sequence in nature

The symbol that has come to represent this ratio is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. See below.

The Golden ratio is a special number (1.618), found by dividing a line into two parts, so that the longer part divided by the smaller part is also equal to the whole length divided by the longer part. It is often symbolized using phi, after the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. In an equation form, it looks like this:

a/b = (a+b)/a = 1.6180339887498948420 … (Wikipedia)

Other examples of the Golden Ratio in  nature are Spiral galaxies, such as The Milky Way, dolphins, starfish, sand dollars, sea urchins, ants and honeybees also exhibit the proportion.

Scientists today, have moved away from thinking  about such considerations, and they are deemed to belong to an ancient time. Darwinian evolutionary theories, and findings from archaeological diggings are more likely to be of interest to the modern mind, because they are evidence-based.

It is still amazing for me to see how much order, beauty and patterning exist in the natural world around us, and to wonder at the time it took, and the processes at work, to create all of this amazing diversity surrounding us, and which we are part of.

The golden ratio (phi) represented as a line divided into two segments a and b, such that the entire line is to the longer a segment as the a segment is to the shorter b segment. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

For more about the Golden Ratio, go to my website at “anne skyvington” (write 4 publish) at

http://www.anneskyvington.com/

## 8 thoughts on “The Golden Ratio in Nature”

1. Ian Harry Wells

Well Anne, let me start by stating I AM no mathematician but that I AM fascinated by things strangely mathematical. This article is in a field covering that fascination. Oh the beauty of nature and the power of the human mind to discover and explore these phenomena. I LOVE this post. More please.

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• That’s great, coz I wanted to follow up on art and the GR. You’re always such a big help,IH.

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2. I love this piece. I fell in love with maths when I realised it’s not just about numbers. S

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• Thanks sooo much, coz my big brother hates it… I love your brilliant piece about a sister keeping in touch with a dead brother! Am following.

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• That’s right, me too. Only recently!

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